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DURIAN (Durio zibethinus) merupakan jenis buah bermusim yang luas di tanam di Malaysia semenjak dahulu lagi. Pokok durian yang tumbuh tinggi akan berbuah pada musimnya dari bulan lewat Mei sehingga September setiap tahun dimana ia dipasarkan untuk pasaran domestik, eksport dan juga diproses untuk pelbagai produk berasaskan durian. Terdapat seluas 72,464 hektar tanaman durian pada 2018 dengan jumlah penghasilan sebanyak 251,910 metrik tan (Sumber: Booklet Statistik Tanaman, Jabatan Pertanian Malaysia 2018). Kawasan utama penanaman durian di Malaysi aterletak di Negeri Pahang (18,293 hektar) diikuti dengan Johor (15,630 hektar) dan juga Sarawak 10,431 hektar). Bagaimana pun dari segi rekod pengeluaran buah durian Negeri Johor masih merupakan pengeluar terbanyak pada 2018 dengan jumlah pengeluaran sebanyak 52,272 metrik tan dan banyak buah yang di eksport ke Singapura. Kawasan di Daerah Muar dan Daerah Tangkak sahaja sudah mempunyai keluasan melebihi 12,000 hektar dengan jenis buah durian premium seperti Musang King (D197), Hajah Hasmah/IOI (D168), D24, Durian Tembaga dan beberapa lagi. Pemilik durian komersil kini kebanyakannya telah pun menukar durian lama kepada varieti baru terutama usang King dengan menanam anakpokok baru atau pun melakukan melalui Cantuman Dewasa (Matured Budding). Pokok lama yang sudah tinggi dan berbatang besar akan dilakukan cantuman dewasa dengan mengunakan baka durian premium sehingga sebahagian besarnya sudah menjadi pokok durian premium. Pasaran durian kini menjadi lebih berdaya saing apabila negera China telah meluluskan pengeksporan 'whole fruit' buah durian kenegara tersebut setelah protokol diluluskan beberapa tahun lepas. Apa pun kini penulis blog dapati kualiti buah durian lebih baik daripada dahulu apabila amalan agronomi pemilik dusun durian mengamalkan pakej amalan teknologi moden. Antaranya seperti penggunaan baja berkualiti, kawalan perosak dan penyakit, pemasangan sistem pengairan dipokok, aktiviti menandakan pokok untuk 'tracebility' dan juga mendapatkan persijilan MyGAP atau MyOrganik. Artikel malam ini dalam blog "Anim Agro Technology" saya paparkan megenai status durian Malaysia yang menuju kearah durian premium dengan kadar yang lebih tinggi dimasa akan datang.

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Bernama dengan beberapa buah akhbar tempatan menulis artikel bertajuk 'Durian Kita Premium' dimana kini durian dari Malaysia dilaporkan akan kekal menjadi pilihan dan rebutan dalam kalangan rakyat China yang dipacu permintaan lebih kukuh terhadap raja buah itu. Berita ini adalah memetik kepada kenyataan Penasihat Komersial di Kedutaan China di Malaysia, Shi Ziming dimana kini minat rakyat China terhadap durian tetap tidak berkurang meskipun rantaian bekalan di Malaysia terjejas sedikit pada awal tahun 2020 akibat pandemik Covid-19 dan kesan dri Perintah Kawalan Pergerakan (PKP) yang berlaku. Dakwa beliau lagi dimana Durian Malaysia jadi pilihan pembeli di China untuk dijadikan hadiah premium kepada rakan dan keluarga dan ia merupakan hadiah yang amat dihargai dikalangan mereka. Beliau nyatakan dimana keunikan pada tekstur dan rasa durian Malaysia tiada tandingannya di dunia maka buah ini akan dipilih dan selalunya dibeli sebagai hadiah untuk keluarga dan rakan. Pengalaman penulis blog semasa mengikuti rombongan YB Menteri Pertanian ketika itu di Nanning, China pada 2017 memang penulis juga boleh mengesahkan dakwaan ini kerana melihat bagaimana sambutan penduduk Nanning yang sanggup berbaris sepanjang lebih 3 km untuk menikmati durian Musang King. Mereka menyatakan durian dari Malaysia lebih manis, aroma kuat dan 'rasa yang tidak boleh dilupakan' setelah ujirasa tersebut berbeza dengan durian import dari Thailand. Perbezaan ini kerana durian dari Malaysia masak gugur (full ripenig stage) sementara durian dari Thailand adalah dipetik dari pokok.

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Dilaporkan dimana China mengimport 600,000 tan durian bernilai AS$1.7 bilion (RM7.24 bilion) pada tahun 2019. Apa pun dari penelitian penulis blog jumlah tersebut hanya kurang daripada 2% daripada jumlah import durian ke negara China. Thailand mendominasi pasaran durian di negara China sehinga melebihi 93% pada tahun 2019 dengan menghantar durian jenis Munthong, Chanee dan Kanyou. Malaysia pula setakat ini hanya menghantar jenis durian Musang King sahaja yang merupakan durian premium dari negara kita.  Eksport durian dari Malaysia menyumbang peratusan kecil di pasaran China akan tetapi ia menerima harga yang agak baik disana.Dilaporkan dimana setakat ini edaran bagi durian Malaysia hanya terdapat di beberapa bandar utama di China dan hanya boleh dibeli melalui platform dalam talian. Penulis blog yang ada ikuti prosedur penghantaran durian Malaysia ke China memang melalui laluan sukar untuk mempastikan perjanjian protokol pengeksportan durian Malaysia sehingga selesai dan memang rumit caranya. Kini selain daripada penghantaran 'whole fruit' telah dibenarkan menghantar dalam bentuk 'durian paste' dan 'frozen durian'. Telah ada perkhidmatan kapalterbang yang khusus untuk menghantar durian segar ke China bermula tahun 2018 lagi oleh pihak pengeksport durian tempatan kita. Perkhidmatan ini dilakukan bersama diantara Persatuan Pengeksport Durian Malaysia dengan usahawan terkemka daripada China.

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Dalam pada itu menurut laporan statistik Kedutaan China dimana dilaporkan ada mengimport 3,200 tan isi durian sejuk beku dan pes dari Malaysia berjumlah AS$41 juta pada 2018. Tinjauan penulis blog ke kilang memproses durian di Raub pada 2019 mendapati dimana Pes Durian Musang King Sejuk Beku di Raub, Pahang seberat 2 kg berharga RM200/pek dimana isi durian D197 ini mengandungi 15-18% isi buah setiap biji. Bagi pes durian kampung pula ia dijual dengan harga sekitar RM150/pek ke China dan USA.  Kelulusan mengeksport durian dalam bentuk biji (whole fruits) ke China dilaporkan bermula pertengahan 2019 mencetuskan lonjakan eskport berjumlah 7,700 metrik tan (termasuk isi dan pes) pada tahun lalu bernilai AS$67 jutaWalaupun berlaku wabak pandemik Covid19 di China dan penghantaran berlaku di luar musim dilaporkan dimana  eksport durian Malaysia ke China pada suku pertama 2020 sama dengan tempoh sebelumnya iaitu AS$ 22 juta iaitu trend yang tersu meningkat. Perkara ini menunjukkan yang eksport durian Malaysia ke China tidak terjejas meskipun pada luar musim. Shi berkata penjualan durian di Malaysia meningkat 10 kali ganda menjelang akhir Mac lalu berikutan promosi platform buah segar e-dagang China, FreshHema dan mencecah RMB4.35 juta (RM2.62 juta) di platform makanan bawa pulang, Meituan Waimai pada 20 Mei lalu.

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Dalam pada itu menurut Presiden Persatuan Peladang Makanan Malaysia (Bahagian Belia), Francis Hong mendakwa dimana eksport durian ke China pada masa ini menyumbang hampir 80 peratus-bekalan baharu untuk musim (Mei hingga Julai atau Ogos)-dijangka meningkat dan dapat memenuhi permintaan pasaran China. Seperti sektor lain, kita terkesan dengan penularan wabak Covid-19. Tetapi sekarang keadaan semakin baik dan dengan musim baharu bermula, kami harap dapat menuai hasil yang banyak, tetapi (pengeluaran) kali ini bergantung kepada cuaca. Menurut Hong lagi dimana pasaran durian Malaysia di China hanya 10 peratus dan dijual di Shanghai, Guangzhou, Guangdong dan Beijing. Malaysia hanya mengeksport durian premium ke China-termasuk Musang King yang terkenal seperti varieti Durian D168 (101) dan varietu durian D24Dianggarkan sekilogram Musang King boleh menjangkau harga bermula daripada RMB200-RMB300 (RM120-RM180)Seorang usahawan bernama Fred Lim juga mengatakan walaupun pengeluaran dan penjualan duriannya terjejas akibat wabak, beliau tetap optimis dan yakin keadaan akan pulih tidak lama lagi. Beliau mendakwa wabak Covid-19 awal tahun ini dan Perintah Kawalan Pergerakan (PKP) menyebabkan aktiviti perniagaan duriannya merosot 50 peratus, sementara pendapatannya berkurang dari RM5 juta sebulan sebelum ini kepada RM2.5 juta. Lim mula mengeksport isi dan pes durian ke China sejak 2010. Pengeluaran terjejas teruk, semoga keadaan akan pulih seperti biasa. Saya juga berharap MITI (Kementerian Perdagangan Antarabangsa dan Industri) dan Kementerian Pertanian dan Industri Makanan akan menganjurkan misi perdagangan ke China tidak lama lagi supaya kita dapat menyertai dan memanfaatkan pasaran yang lebih besar di sana. Semuga artikel inii memberi info berguna kepada semua pembaca blog anim agro technology kali ini. Wasallam!!!...
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DURIAN MALAYSIA... PREMIUM DIA...
MUSANG KING... IA VARIETI UTAMA...
HARGA MAHAL... DIHANTAR KE CHINA...
POTENSI BAIK... PASTIKAN BERJAYA...

By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Precint 11, Putrajaya,
WP Putrajaya,
Malaysia.
(7 Zulkaedah 1441H).

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